To obtain an improved catalyst for fluid cracking purposes, kaolin or metakaolin is reacted with an acid of the group of phosphoric, sulphuric and acetic acids by mixing and heating to 25-110 C., after which the slurry is washed. The slurry is not neutralized prior to washing. The thus obtained kaolin is then mixed with a crystalline aluminosilicate and, optionally, with a clay (e.g ...
EP0358261A1 EP89202174A EP89202174A EP0358261A1 EP 0358261 A1 EP0358261 A1 EP 0358261A1 EP 89202174 A EP89202174 A EP 89202174A EP
Kaolin and Commercial FCC Catalysts in the Cracking of Loads of Polypropylene Under Refinary Conditions 827 Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol. 30, No. 04, pp. 825 - 834, October - December, 2013 Vaseline (petroleum jelly), containing 95-99% paraffin, 0.4% aromatic compounds and 0.07% sulphur
Dec 09, 1991 I claim 1. A catalyst composition for fluid cracking comprising . a. 5 to 50% by weight of a crystalline aluminosilicate b. 5 to 80% by weight of an acid treated clay selected from the group consisting of kaolin and metakaolin obtained by admixing said clay with an acid selected from the group consisting of phosphoric and acetic acid, with the resulting slurry
Clays are used extensively for various processes such as catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, reforming, isomerization, hydrogenation, alkylation, etc. The most important clays used in the manufacture of catalysts are kaolin and montmorillonite. The largest use of kaolin is in catalyst substrates in the catalytic cracking of petroleum, in the ...
Murray 21 estimates that more than 200,000 tonnes of kaolin are used annually to produce petroleum cracking catalysts. ... Development of semi
Nov 26, 2020 Halloysite is a rare derivate of kaolin, a clay mineral. It has traditionally used in ceramics and as a petroleum cracking catalyst, however it has a raft of exciting new applications in emerging industries set to only expand in the decades to come energy storage, batteries, supercapacitors, carbon capture, and cancer therapeutics.
Dec 01, 2020 The Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF) figured out that if some components of this catalyst were produced locally, it would drastically reduce the total money spent on importation thereby serving as a cost alleviation strategy for the petroleum industry . Although kaolin and bentonite clay have successfully been studied for its ...
Aug 14, 2020 The catalytic performance of the catalysts formulated were determined using fixed bed catalytic cracking reactor. The BET specific surface area, pore volume, Si/Al, and average particle size of the Kankara kaolin used as raw material were 12.95 m 2 /g, 0.0038 cm 3 /g, 1.9 and 1.0 m respectively.
Nov 30, 1993 I claim 1. A particulate attrition resistant composition of matter suitable for circulating in a fluid catalytic cracking unit with an active cracking catalyst and comprising catalytically inert, fluidzable particles comprising attapulgite clay that has been sintered at a temperature above 1350 F., said particles having a BET surface area below 15 m 2 /g, an
Aug 07, 2011 The catalyst matrix (kaolin) and the commercial fluid cracking catalysts (FCC-L and FCC-H) were supplied and characterized by BASF Catalysts LLC (Iselin, NJ, USA). The catalysts were steamed at 732.2C with 100% steam for 4 h in a fluidized state to reduce the activity of the fresh catalyst so that its performance was a representative of an ...
Al-Dhamri et al. (2011) used the petroleum refinery byproducts spent alumina catalyst (SAC), reduced fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (RFCC), and
BASF. Jul 2016 - Present5 years. Directly responsible for 79 personnel (production, maintenance, quality, capital expenditure) to support processing of kaolin clay for the Refining Catalyst ...
The Application of Petroleum coke grinding mill HGM Petroleum coke grinding mill is mainly applied to non-inflammable, non-explosive and brittle materials with Mohs hardness under six. Such as calcite, chalk, Petroleum coke, dolomite, kaolin, gypsum, etc, totally more than 100 kinds of materials.
Mar 01, 1991 CLAY CATALYSIS -- CATALYTIC CRACKING Catalysts made from, or incorporating some of these clay minerals are or have been used extensively in the cracking of petroleum (Milliken et al., 1955 ). Many of these catalysts are or were produced from halloysites, kaolin- ites, and to a major degree in the early days from bentonites containing cal- cium
Apr 07, 2021 Kaolin is used in the field of ceramics, which is conducive to the formation of mullite and improves its chemical stability and sintering strength. 3. Petrochemical Industry Kaolin can be used as a catalyst filler for petroleum cracking, and kaolin has high purity, which is good for making catalyst carriers. 4. Coating Industry
Jan 01, 2019 Acid treated kaolin (ATK) exhibited high yield of 74.4% and high quality liquid products with high oxygen removal of 93.8% and low aromatic contents of 22.5%. The reference catalyst, a commercial petroleum catalyst (CC) could eliminate the most of oxygen (90.8%) but produced too many unexpected aromatics (55.8%).
Kaolin and commercial fcc catalysts in the cracking of loads of polypropylene under refinary conditions December 2013 Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering 30(4)825-834
The catalytic activities of prepared zeolite NaY, NH4Y and HY were investigated by using the simplified laboratory scale fixed-bed catalytic cracking unit. In this study, the feed was heavy gas oil. The cracking process was carried out with catalyst
Nov 30, 1993 The manufacture of fluid cracking catalysts, including the production of blending component, utilizes premium quality refined kaolin clays and is carried out on an extensive scale. One result is a dwindling of the formerly vast reserves of kaolins.
US2967157A US490128A US49012855A US2967157A US 2967157 A US2967157 A US 2967157A US 490128 A US490128 A US 490128A US 49012855 A US49012855 A US 49012855A US 2967157 A US2967157 A US 2967157A Authority US United States Prior art keywords clay catalyst percent pellets kaolin Prior art date 1955-02-23 Legal status (The
kaolin catalyst composition catalyst acid silica Prior art date 1988-09-06 Application number FI894180A Other languages Finnish (fi) Swedish (sv) Other versions FI894180A (en FI894180A0 (en FI96006C (en Inventor Macedo Jos Carlos Duarte Original Assignee Petroleo Brasileiro Sa Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal ...
The largest use of kaolin is in catalyst substrates in the catalytic cracking of petroleum, in the matrix as catalysts of fluid catalytic cracking, synthetic of zeolite andalumina. Montmorillonites or acid-modified montmorillonites also have been used for numerous reactions. For example, the best clay base for pillaring is a high-swelling Na ...
Jul 22, 2017 Mixed composite catalysts including three types of zeolite (Y, and ZSM-5), kaolin and binder (Al 2 O 3) were prepared as a model of an industrial catalyst for catalytic cracking and were tested in the catalytic cracking of VGO using a Curie point pyrolyzer (CPP) as a simple estimation method of catalysts for catalytic cracking.The mixed catalysts
Jan 19, 2021 Kaolin is used in FCC catalyst on the one hand as an adhesive catalyst carrier, mainly for FCC catalyst to provide good wear resistance, appropriate bulk density and other physical properties or as an active component acceleratorOn the other hand, the all-clay type catalyst was prepared, that is, Y-type zeolite catalyst was directly grown by ...
ture of catalysts for petroleum reneries. 1.3. Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit An essential aspect of crude rening process takes place in the Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) due to its ability to convert high boiling petroleum fraction. These fractions (high value needed transportation fuels) includes gasoline, jet fuels,
To produce an optimized matrix for the in situ crystallization of zeolite Y, a commercial kaolin chemically treated with NaOH solution at 97C for 24 h and thermally transformed from 750 to 1100C was studied. The kaolin calcined at 750C has 20% more reactive tetrahedral aluminium species for the synthesis of zeolite Y than kaolin calcined at 865C.
Dec 31, 2018 The industrial uses of clays as catalysts dates from the early 20th century, where they were used for the cracking of petroleum crude oil and encompassed about 40 % among the cracking catalysts 3, 4. Clay catalysts to date are applicable mostly in the transformation of fossil fuels and fossil fuel-derivative to petrochemical fuels 4, 5.
powerful tools in the petroleum refining industry. Zeolites are widely used as a catalyst and catalyst support for a quite broad range of processes, which attracted much interest in catalytic application in petroleum refining industry such as FCC, hydro cracking (HC), reforming, alkylation and isomerization 4,5.
Develop User-defined Emission Factors. You can develop an emissions factor from individual performance test values that you select from the WebFIRE database using the same procedures that EPA follows to develop new or revise existing factors. To begin, retrieve the test data values of interest by entering each of the search criteria below in ...
I claim 1. A catalyst composition for fluid cracking comprising . a. 5 to 50% by weight of a crystalline aluminosilicate b. 5 to 80% by weight of an acid treated clay selected from the group consisting of kaolin and metakaolin obtained by admixing said clay with sulphuric acid, with the resulting slurry being heated to 25-110 C. for 1 to 100 hours under atmospheric or
The catalyst performance in terms of gasoline yield in cracking of n-hexadecane at 400, 500 and 500 C were 40.7%, 59.5% and 60.0% respectively. Gasoline selectivity at
1 Introduction . It is well known that Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process plays an important role in petroleum refining industry, and FCC catalyst is the core of FCC process. Since kaolin was introduced into the manufacture of semi-synthetic FCC catalyst, the rheology of kaolin slurry was potential in catalyst processing such as pipe transporting and stirring.
sites on their surfaces, which made them to be as catalysts. Acid-activated kaolin clays have been used to prepare cracking catalysts (Emam, 2013). Calcination of kaolin followed by acid activation gives a catalyst of the same activity as activated montmorillonite at about one-half of the fresh surface area.
Feb 01, 2010 Natural rectorite mineral A promising substitute of kaolin for in-situ synthesis of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts Baoying Wei , State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Changping, Beijing 102249, P. R. China