A continuous countercurrent flow process for converting FGD gypsum to ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate including countercurrent flows
Dec 31, 1995 Conversion of FGD- gypsum to ammonium sulfate was tested at 60-70degreeC for 5-6 hr. Yield up to 82% and purity up to 95% were achieved for the ammonium sulfate production. During this quarter, more bench-scale experiments including a mass balance analysis were conducted a yield up to 83% and up to 99% purity were achieved.
Dec 31, 1995 Conversion of FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate were tested at temperatures between 60 to 70degreesC for a duration of five to six hours. The results of a literature review and preliminary bench-scale experiments are presented in this paper.
May 07, 2018 The conversion of gypsum might be economically viable today due to growing expenses related to the deposition of FGD gypsum and the removal of CO 2 captured as CaCO 3 in this process. Moreover, as aforementioned, ammonium sulfate is more desired product today than in the past, which positively influences its price.
A continuous countercurrent flow process for converting FGD gypsum to ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate comprising the following steps separating an aqueous slurry of FGD gypsum to result in a FGD gypsum liquid residue and a FGD gypsum cake combining the FGD gypsum cake with an ammonium carbonate solution and an ammonium sulfate solution in a
Ammonium sulfate can be prepared by the conversion reaction of gypsum with CO 2 and ammonia (Danielik et al., 2018). Except for ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate is produced as a by-product ...
The process for conversion of gypsum to ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate by the reaction with ammonium carbonate is by a unique combination of countercurrent flows coupled with reactors operated in a batch manner and thus partially continuous, with internal recycle of liquids to maximize the purity of reaction products while minimizing the reaction time.
1. Dissolution of gypsum. CaSO 4 2H 2 O (NH 4) 2 CO 3 (NH 4) 2 SO 4 CaCO 3 2H 2 O The first step is the application of an ammonium carbonate containing poultice to the surface to be treated. This leads to the conversion of the relatively insoluble gypsum into soluble ammonium sulfate that partly migrates into the poultice.
margin for converting FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate if a granule size of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters could be produced. The results suggested that considering the potential markets of the PCC produced by the process would furt her improve the economics. Also, the average sale price of ammonium sulfate has been increasing.
Dec 31, 1996 Phase 1 of the project focused on the process for converting FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer with PCC produced as a by-product during the conversion. Early cost estimates suggested that the process was economically feasible when granular size ammonium sulfate crystals were produced.
engineering data. Conversion of FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate was tested at temperatures between 60 to 70C for a duration of four to six hours. A preliminary process flow diagram was proposed, and the economics of the process was estimated. The
Conversion Factors and Tables Length ... Sulfur, S Gypsum, CaSO 4.2H 2O 5.3696 0.1862 Sulfuric oxide, SO 3 Sulfur, S 0.4005 2.4969 Sulfuric oxide, SO 3 Ammonium sulfate, (NH 4)2SO 4 1.6505 0.6059 Sulfuric oxide, SO 3 Copper sulfate, CuSO 4 1.9935 0.5016 Sulfuric oxide, SO 3 Magnesium sulfate, MgSO
Jun 01, 2019 The conversion of gypsum might be economically viable today due to growing expenses related to the deposition of FGD gypsum and the removal of CO 2 captured as CaCO 3 in this process. Moreover, ammonium sulfate is a more desired product today than it was in the past, positively influencing its price.
Nov 15, 2019 In the metal self-enrichment process, ammonium sulfate can be obtained from red gypsum conversion for commercial purpose, while the acidic wastewater could be treated by neutralization. Solid phase product with one circulation (containing 39.45% Fe and 7.37% Ca) and two circulation (containing 45.79% Fe, 4.75% Ca) can be used as the ...
An alternate method for converting gypsum into ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate is the Continental Engineering Process, in which NH3 and CO2 are directly introduced into a gypsum slurry in a tall, cylindrical stirred vessel. Zapp K et al Ammonium Compounds. Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 7th ed. (1999-2014).
V. Evaluate the impact of continued use of FGD-gypsum-derived ammonium sulfate on soil chemical properties. VI. Establish a process flow sheet for the production of ammonium sulfate from FGD gypsum and evaluate the production costs and the market potential for the product. This project is a cooperative effort among the ISGS, UIUC, AUiedSignal, SE-ME,
1995-12-31 Conversion of FGD- gypsum to ammonium sulfate was tested at 60-70 degreeC for 5-6 hr. Yield up to 82% and purity up to 95% were achieved for the ammonium sulfate production. During this quarter, more bench-scale experiments including a mass balance analysis were conducted a yield up to 83% and up to 99% purity were achieved.
Ferric sulfate Fe2(SO4)3 9H2O 1.09 5.85 Lime sulfur (22% S) CaS 0.68 3.65 Calcium chloride CaC12 H2O 0.86 --Aluminum sulfate A12(SO4)3-- 6.34 * The percent purity is given on the bag or identification tag Common Amendment Reactions in Soil Gypsum (calcium sulfate) sodic soil calcium soil sodium sulfate (leachable with water)
The phase diagram for the conversion of gypsum and potassium chloride to potassium sulfate in aqueous ammonia was obtained. The phase equilibria for potassium ion, calcium ion, ammonium ion, chloride ion, sulfate ion and water were determined. The influence of various parameters on the conversion yield of potassium chloride was studied.
Apr 22, 2020 The conversion of potassium chloride and calcium sulfate is based on the solubility of salts in the K , Ca 2 Cl , SO 4 2 H 2 O system. The literature data on the physicochemical study of this system at various temperatures show that the bulk of the diagram, which reflects the mutual solubility of the salts of this system, is occupied by the gypsum
Aug 31, 2019 The obtained ammonium sulfate product has a percent of purity equals 95%. Other works were realized by Ennaciri et al. 21 correspond to the conversion of the phosphogypsum to CaCO 3 and K 2 SO 4 or Na 2 SO 4 by a wet method.
Conversion of phosphogypsum to sodium sulfate and calcium carbonate in ... Gypsum treatments decreased saline-alkali soils pH, electrical conductivity, and ... Synthesis of ammonium sulfate
May 31, 1995 FGD-gypsum from Abbott power plant was used. The scrubber, a Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD, produced a filter cake (98.36% gypsum and 0.01% CaSOsub 3). Conversion of FGD- gypsum to ammonium sulfate was tested at 60-70degreeC for 5-6 hr. Yield up to 82% and purity up to 95% were achieved for the ammonium sulfate production.
The processes of the present invention employ two or more reactors in a partially continuous countercurrent flow process to convert gypsum to ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate at a yield of 100%, 99 to 100% and 97 to 100%. The gypsum is converted according to the following chemical reaction (NH 4) 2 CO 3 CaSO 4.2H 2 O(NH 4) 2 SO 4 ...
largest producers of ammonium sulfate in the United States, is interested in developing a process to convert FGD-gypsum to granular ammonium sulfate. They will be involved in testing and quality evaluation of the products. They are also most interested in an agreement to market the finished product. Illinois Power (IP) and
Conversion of FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate were tested at temperatures between 60 to 70C for a duration of five to six hours. A yield of up to 82% and a purity of up to 95% for the ammonium sulfate production was achieved. In this quarter, more bench-scale experiments including a mass balance analysis were conducted.
ammonium sulfate at these prices, plus the possible sale of PCC by-product, the conversion of FGD-gypsum to ammonium sulfate and PCC becomes an attractive process that could improve the economics of FGD systems in Illinois. The overall goal of this project is to assess the technical feasibility for producing the dual
Process Use of gaseous reagents to convert FGD gypsum into ammonium sulfate crystals (fertilizer) and powdered technical grade calcium carbonate (industrial filler). Options to reduce reagent costs are available and are being investigated thoroughly. Current Stage Demonstration scale plant designed and ready to build. Demo-Scale Goals Validate design in continuous
For example, if your material is ammonium sulfate and the recommended rate is 500 pounds per acre, use 1.2 pounds or 1 pint of fertilizer for a 100-foot area, use 3 tablespoons for 10 feet of row spaced 1 foot apart, or use .6 cup for 10 feet of row spaced 3 feet apart.
74 much lower than gypsum 15, hence their formation is expected to be beneficial, as 75 long as cracking is prevented. According to reactions 1-3, ammonium sulfate 76 ((NH 4) 2 SO 4) is also expected to form as a by-product. Being highly soluble in water,
Sep 27, 2021 A peak of the gypsum (CaSO 4) was observed at 20.6 in the pattern of the 5% FS-treated bauxite residue, possibly because FS dissolved and released sulfate ions, which then combined with calcium ions in bauxite residue to form calcium sulfate.
Dec 31, 1995 The overall goal of this study is to assess the technical and economic feasibilities for producing marketable products including fertilizer-grade ammonium sulfate from gypsum produced as part of lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. Millions of tone of FGD-gypsum by-product may be ...
Dec 31, 1994 The goal of this study is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing marketable products, namely fertilizer-grade ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate, from gypsum produced as part of lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. Millions of tons of FGD-gypsum by-product will be produced in this decade.
Optimization of phosphogypsum conversion into calcium carbonate and lithium sulfate monohydrate ... and ammonium bisulphate from. 391 ... of the conversion of two synthetic types of gypsum by ...
Jul 08, 2015 (22) 28.01.2016 (43) 06.12.2017 (57) Summary of the corresponding patent WO2016123301 (A1) The present invention includes a partially continuous countercurrent process for converting gypsum, by reaction with ammonium carbonate, to products of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate by introducing the reactants into reactors, mixing